ap-1 (proper ǝp-) : ēp-

    ap-1 (proper ǝp-) : ēp-
    English meaning: to take, grab, reach
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “fassen, nehmen, erreichen”
    Note: From the reduced Root ghabh- : “to grab, take”, derived Root ap-1 (exact ǝp-) : ēp- : “to take, grab, reach, *give” > Root ēpi- : “comrade” > Root ai-3 : “to give”. Maybe Alb.Tosk (*ḫe-ip-mi) ep, jap, Gheg nep (*na “us” + ep “give”) “give us (*take)” : Hitt. e-ip-mi (ē̆pmi) “take”, 3. pl. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi) : Gk. ἅπτω “ give a hand.
    Material: O.Ind. üpnṓ ti “ achieved, attained “, more recently üptá -ḥ “ clever, suitable, trusted “; Av. apayeiti “ achieved, reached “, 3. pl. üpǝnte from *üpu̯ antai; Arm. unim “ own” (*ōp-n-?), ǝnd-unim “attain”; Gk. ἅπτω “ give a hand, attach, pick a quarrel, light, kindle “, ἅπτεσθαι “ touch “, ἁφή “ touch, adherence etc. “ will be delievered in spite of the spirit here. Kretschmer Gl. 7, 352 assumes influencing by ἕπω an; Hom. ἀφάω (ἁφάω) “ touch, palpate, feel, finger “, Ion. ἀφάσσω ds., common Gk.-Illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation; Hom. ἀπαφίσκω, ἤπαφον (with Eol. o: ἀποφεῖν ἀπατῆσαι Hes.) “ cheat, barter, exchange “, ἀποφώλιος “ phantasmic, delusive, fallacious “, κατηφής “low-spirited” (lit. “ got down “). Pedersen KZ. 39, 428 puts with Gk. ἅπτω Arm. ap” “ the hollow hand “ (o-stem, however, loc. y-ap”i as -i-stem, thus probably older neutr. -os-stem) together, which word should correspond to Gk. ἅψος “ joint, hinge “; because of p” (= IE ph) nevertheless, uncertain (compare Meillet BAL.-SLAV. 36, 110); Lat. apīscor “ touch, reach, attain, come to, come by “, adipīscor “ to come up to, overtake; hence to obtain. perf. partic. adeptus, used passively, = obtained “, coēpi “ has begun, commenced “, later coepī. The connection with Lat. *apiō, *apere “ to bind together, unite, joint, connect, link, tie round “ (imper. ape “ hinder, prevent, restrain “), aptus “ as partic. fitted, fastened, connected. Transf., depending on; also prepared, fitted out; fitted up with, equipped with, with abl. (2) as adj. suitable, appropriate, fitting. adv. apte “, cōpula (co-apula) “ a link, bond, tie, connection; a rope, a leash; plur. grapnels “ is probably certain. Maybe is derived from a common primary meaning “ touch, summarize “. Also Lat. apud “at, near, by, with, in” will be best of all suit here. The primary meaning would be “ in close connection “ (compare juxtü). One has derived from the part. perf. neutr. *apu̯od (from *apu̯ot “ having reached “). Additional form apor, apur (mars.-Lat. apur finem) points on originally-d; Lat. apex, -icis “ cusp “, esp. “ the top of the conical cap of the Roman “flamines”, or the cap itself; hence any crown, tiara, helmet; fig., highest honor, crown; gram., the long mark over a vowel “, maybe belongs to *apiō; compare also EM. 60; Toch. A oppäc̨ c̨ i “clever” (Van Windekens Lexique 82); Hitt. e-ip-mi (ē̆pmi) “ takes “, 3. pl. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi).
    Note: The original root was Root ap-1 (exact ǝp-) : ēp- : “to take, grab, reach, *give” > Root ēpi- : “comrade” > Root ai-3 : “to give”. Maybe Alb.Tosk (*e-ip-mi) ep, jap, Gheg nep (*na ep) “give us (*take)” : Hitt. e-ip-mi (ē̆pmi) “take”, 3. pl. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi) : Gk. ἅπτω “ give a hand. [see above] About O.Ind. üpí -ḥ “ friend “, Gk. ἤπιoς “ friendly” see below ēpi-.
    References: WP. I 45 f., WH. I 57 f., 60, 847, Pedersen Hitt. 128, Couvreur H̯ 93.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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